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Global Salafism
Author: Roel Meijer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199333432
Pages: 463
Year: 2013
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"Maps out differences in various Salafist schools. This book examines the phenomenon both in its regional manifestations - which demonstrate surprising diversities, ambivalences and contradictions - and in its shared essential doctrines"--
Global Salafism
Author: Roel Meijer
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 023180038X
Pages: 400
Year: 2011-02-10
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"Salafism" and "jihadi-Salafism" have become significant doctrinal trends in contemporary Islamic thought, yet the West largely fails to offer a sophisticated and discerning definition of these movements. The contributors to Global Salafism carefully outline both the differences among Salafist schools and the broader currents of Islamic thought constituting this trend. Essays examine the regional manifestations of the phenomenon and its shared essential doctrines. Their analyses highlight Salafism's inherent ambivalence and complexities, or the "out-antiquing the antique" that has brought Islamic thought into the modern age while simultaneously maintaining its relationship with an older, purer authenticity. Emphasizing the subtle, local and global aspirations within the "Salafist method," Global Salafism investigates the movement like no other study currently available.
Global Salafism
Author: Roel Meijer
Publisher: Hurst Publishers
ISBN: 185065980X
Pages: 463
Year: 2009
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Part 1 : Salafist Doctrine 1. On the Nature of Salafi Thought and Action 33 Appendix al-Qaeda's Creed and Path Bernard Haykel 51 2. Between Revolution and Apoliticism: Nasir al-Din al-Albani and his Impact on the Shaping of Contemporary Salafism Stephane Lacroix 58 3. The Transformation of a Radical Concept: al-wala wa-l-bara in the Ideology of Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi Joas Wagemakers 81 4. Jihadi-Salafism and the Shi'is: Remarks about the Intellectual Roots of anti-Shi'ism Guido Steinberg 107 5. Salafism in Pakistan: The Ahl-c Hadith Movement Mariam Abou Zahab 126 Part 2 : Salafism and Politics 6. The Salafi Critique of Islamism: Doctrine, Difference and the Problem of Islamic Political Action in Contemporary Sudan Noah Salomon 143 7. Ambivalent Doctrines and Conflicts in the Salafi Movement in Indonesia Noorhaidi Hasan 169 8. Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong as a Principle of Social Action: The Case of the Egyptian al-Jama'a al-lslamiyya Roel Meijer 189 9. Salafi Formations in Palestine: The Limits of a de-Palestinised Milieu Khaled Hroub 221 Part 3 : Jihadi-Salafism 10. Jihadi-Salafis or Revolutionaries? On Religion and Politics in the Study of Militant Islamism Thomas Heggbammer 244 11. Debates within the Family: Jihadi-Salafi Debates on Strategy, Takfir, Extremism, Suicide Bombings and the Sense of the Apocalypse Reuven Paz 267 12. 'Destructive Doctrinairians': Abu Mus'ab al-Suri's Critique of the Salafis in the Jihadi Current Brynjar Lia 281 Part 4 : The Local and the Global in Salafism 13. The Local and the Global in Saudi Salafi Discourse Madawi Al-Rasheed 301 14. How Transnational is Salafism in Yemen? Laurent Bonnefoy 321 15. Growth and Fragmentation: The Salafi Movement in Bale, Ethiopia Terje Qstebo 342 Part 5 : Salafism and Identity 16. Salafism in France: Ideology, Practices and Contradictions Mohamed-Ali Adraoui 364 17. The Attraction of'Authentic Islam': Salafism and British Muslim Youth Sadek
The Making of Salafism
Author: Henri Lauzière
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231540175
Pages: 336
Year: 2015-11-17
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Some Islamic scholars hold that Salafism is an innovative and rationalist effort at Islamic reform that emerged in the late nineteenth century but gradually disappeared in the mid twentieth. Others argue Salafism is an anti-innovative and antirationalist movement of Islamic purism that dates back to the medieval period yet persists today. Though they contradict each other, both narratives are considered authoritative, making it hard for outsiders to grasp the history of the ideology and its core beliefs. Introducing a third, empirically based genealogy, The Making of Salafism understands the concept as a recent phenomenon projected back onto the past, and it sees its purist evolution as a direct result of decolonization. Henri Lauzière builds his history on the transnational networks of Taqi al-Din al-Hilali (1894–1987), a Moroccan Salafi who, with his associates, participated in the development of Salafism as both a term and a movement. Traveling from Rabat to Mecca, from Calcutta to Berlin, al-Hilali interacted with high-profile Salafi scholars and activists who eventually abandoned Islamic modernism in favor of a more purist approach to Islam. Today, Salafis tend to claim a monopoly on religious truth and freely confront other Muslims on theological and legal issues. Lauzière's pathbreaking history recognizes the social forces behind this purist turn, uncovering the popular origins of what has become a global phenomenon.
Salafism in Nigeria
Author: Alexander Thurston
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107157439
Pages: 290
Year: 2016-09-16
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Examines how Salafism, a globally influential Muslim movement, is reshaping religious authority in Nigeria, Africa's most populous country.
A Quietist Jihadi
Author: Joas Wagemakers
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139510894
Year: 2012-06-11
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Since 9/11, the Jordanian Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi (b. West Bank, 1959) has emerged as one of the most important radical Muslim thinkers alive today. While al-Maqdisi may not be a household name in the West, his influence amongst like-minded Muslims stretches across the world from Jordan - where he lives today - to Southeast Asia. His writings and teachings on Salafi Islam have inspired terrorists from Europe to the Middle East, including Abu Mus'ab al-Zarqawi, the former leader of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, and Ayman al-Zawahiri, Osama Bin Laden's successor as the head of al-Qa'ida Central. This groundbreaking book, which is the first comprehensive assessment of al-Maqdisi, his life, ideology, and influence, is based on his extensive writings and those of other jihadis, as well as on interviews that the author conducted with (former) jihadis, including al-Maqdisi himself. It is a serious and intense work of scholarship that uses this considerable archive to explain and interpret al-Maqdisi's particular brand of Salafism. More broadly, the book offers an alternative, insider perspective on the rise of radical Islam, with a particular focus on Salafi opposition movements in Saudi Arabia and Jordan.
Salafism in Jordan
Author: Joas Wagemakers
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316776816
Year: 2016-09-15
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Since the events of 9/11, Salafism in the Middle East has often been perceived as fixed, rigid and even violent, but this assumption overlooks the quietist ideology that characterises many Salafi movements. Through an exploration of Salafism in Jordan, Joas Wagemakers presents the diversity among quietist Salafis on a range of ideological and political issues, particularly their relationship with the state. He expounds a detailed analysis of Salafism as a whole, whilst also showing how and why quietist Salafism in Jordan - through ideological tendencies, foreign developments, internal conflicts, regime involvement, theological challenges and regional turmoil - transformed from an independent movement into a politically domesticated one. Essential for graduate students and academic researchers interested in Middle Eastern politics and Salafism, this major contribution to the study of Salafism debunks stereotypes and offers insight into the development of a trend that still remains a mystery to many.
Salafism in Yemen
Author: Laurent Bonnefoy
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0199327661
Pages: 313
Year: 2012-01-31
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Over the last decade or so Salafism has become one of the West's new political bogey-men. Many regard the movement as the antechamber of violent groups such as al-Qaeda, and as the by-product of a centralized foreign-policy platform shaped by so-called Saudi interests. Based on extensive research conducted throughout Yemen between 2001 and 2009, and particularly in the southern province of Yafi', this book offers an original approach to Salafism and draws a necessary counter-narrative that takes into account the dynamics of the Salafi movement as well as its relationship to its evolving environment, either local, regional and international. Having studied over a hundred recorded sermons and conferences and dozens of books, and carried out interviews with numerous clerics, intellectuals and activists, Laurent Bonnefoy focuses on the allegedly apolitical Salafi doctrine promoted by the renowned Yemeni Salafi figure, Muqbil al-Wadi'i, who died in 2001. Building on IR theory and political sociology, he references the everyday practices of al-Wadi'i's dedicated followers, their rivalries as well as their own evolving trajectories. He demonstrates that, rather than resulting from specifically planned policies, Yemeni Salafism has, since the early 1980s, evolved through a series of spontaneous, grassroots mechanisms, many of which are shaped by transnational flows, that embed this movement in the complex Yemeni context.
Author: Shiraz Maher
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190694726
Year: 2016-11-01
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No topic has captured the public imagination of late quite so dramatically as the specter of global jihadism. While much has been said about the way jihadists behave, their ideology remains poorly understood. As the Levant has imploded and millenarian radicals claim to have revived a Caliphate based on the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed, the need for a nuanced and accurate understanding of jihadist beliefs has never been greater. Shiraz Maher charts the intellectual underpinnings of salafi-jihadism from its origins in the mountains of the Hindu Kush to the jihadist insurgencies of the 1990s and the 9/11 wars. What emerges is the story of a pragmatic but resilient warrior doctrine that often struggles - as so many utopian ideologies do - to consolidate the idealism of theory with the reality of practice. His ground-breaking introduction to salafi-jihadism recalibrates our understanding of the ideas underpinning one of the most destructive political philosophies of our time by assessing classical works from Islamic antiquity alongside those of contemporary ideologues. Packed with refreshing and provocative insights, Maher explains how war and insecurity engendered one of the most significant socio-religious movements of the modern era.
Jihad in the West
Author: Frazer Egerton
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139501100
Year: 2011-03-17
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Militant Salafism is one of the most significant movements in politics today. Unfortunately its significance has not been matched by understanding. To begin to address this knowledge deficit this book argues that, rather than the largely unhelpful pursuit of individual 'root causes' offered in much of the literature, we would be better served by looking at the factors that have enabled and facilitated a particular political imaginary. That political imaginary is one that allows individuals to conceive of themselves as integral members of a global battle waged between the forces of Islam and the West, something that lies at the heart of militant Salafism. Frazer Egerton shows how the ubiquity of modern media and the prevalence of movement have allowed for a transformation of existing beliefs into an ideology supportive of militant Salafism against the West amongst Western Muslims.
The Making of a Salafi Muslim Woman
Author: Anabel Inge
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190611677
Pages: 303
Year: 2016
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The spread of Salafism - often called "Wahhabism" - in the West has intrigued and alarmed observers since 9/11. Many see it as a fundamentalist interpretation of Islam that subjugates women and fuels Jihadist extremism. According to this view, Salafi women are the unwilling victims of apatriarchal, fanatical version of Islam. Yet, in Britain, growing numbers of educated women - often converts or from less conservative Muslim backgrounds - are actively choosing to embrace Salafism's literalist beliefs and strict guidelines, including full veiling, wifely obedience, and seclusionfrom non-related men. How do these young women reconcile these demands with their desire for fulfilling careers, university degrees and suitable husbands? How do their beliefs affect their love lives and other relationships? And why do they become Salafis in the first place?Anabel Inge has gained unprecedented access to Salafi women's groups in the UK to provide the first in-depth and vivid account of their lives. Drawing on more than two years of ethnographic fieldwork and interviews in London, she probes the reasons for Salafism's appeal among young Somalis,Afro-Caribbean converts, and women from other backgrounds. She also reveals how the women's lives are fraught with personal dilemmas. This ground-breaking, lucid, and richly detailed contribution will be of interest to policy-makers, journalists, scholars, and general readers.
Understanding Terror Networks
Author: Marc Sageman
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812206797
Pages: 232
Year: 2011-09-21
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For decades, a new type of terrorism has been quietly gathering ranks in the world. America's ability to remain oblivious to these new movements ended on September 11, 2001. The Islamist fanatics in the global Salafi jihad (the violent, revivalist social movement of which al Qaeda is a part) target the West, but their operations mercilessly slaughter thousands of people of all races and religions throughout the world. Marc Sageman challenges conventional wisdom about terrorism, observing that the key to mounting an effective defense against future attacks is a thorough understanding of the networks that allow these new terrorists to proliferate. Based on intensive study of biographical data on 172 participants in the jihad, Understanding Terror Networks gives us the first social explanation of the global wave of activity. Sageman traces its roots in Egypt, gestation in Afghanistan during the Soviet-Afghan war, exile in the Sudan, and growth of branches worldwide, including detailed accounts of life within the Hamburg and Montreal cells that planned attacks on the United States. U.S. government strategies to combat the jihad are based on the traditional reasons an individual was thought to turn to terrorism: poverty, trauma, madness, and ignorance. Sageman refutes all these notions, showing that, for the vast majority of the mujahedin, social bonds predated ideological commitment, and it was these social networks that inspired alienated young Muslims to join the jihad. These men, isolated from the rest of society, were transformed into fanatics yearning for martyrdom and eager to kill. The tight bonds of family and friendship, paradoxically enhanced by the tenuous links between the cell groups (making it difficult for authorities to trace connections), contributed to the jihad movement's flexibility and longevity. And although Sageman's systematic analysis highlights the crucial role the networks played in the terrorists' success, he states unequivocally that the level of commitment and choice to embrace violence were entirely their own. Understanding Terror Networks combines Sageman's scrutiny of sources, personal acquaintance with Islamic fundamentalists, deep appreciation of history, and effective application of network theory, modeling, and forensic psychology. Sageman's unique research allows him to go beyond available academic studies, which are light on facts, and journalistic narratives, which are devoid of theory. The result is a profound contribution to our understanding of the perpetrators of 9/11 that has practical implications for the war on terror.
Sufis, Salafis and Islamists
Author: Sadek Hamid
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 1784532312
Pages: 202
Year: 2016
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British Muslim activism has evolved constantly in recent decades. What have been its main groups and how do their leaders compete to attract followers? Which social and religious ideas from abroad are most influential? In this groundbreaking study, Sadek Hamid traces the evolution of Sufi, Salafi and Islamist activist groups in Britain, including The Young Muslims UK, Hizb ut-Tahrir, the Salafi JIMAS organisation and Traditional Islam Network. With reference to second-generation British Muslims especially, he explains how these groups gain and lose support, embrace and reject foreign ideologies, and succeed and fail to provide youth with compelling models of British Muslim identity. Analyzing historical and firsthand community research, Hamid gives a compelling account of the complexity that underlies reductionist media narratives of Islamic activism in Britain.
Salafism in Lebanon
Author: Robert G. Rabil
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 1626161178
Pages: 304
Year: 2014-09-26
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Salafism, comprised of fundamentalist Islamic movements whose adherents consider themselves the only “saved” sect of Islam, has been little studied, remains shrouded in misconceptions, and has provoked new interest as Salafists have recently staked a claim to power in some Arab states while spearheading battles against “infidel” Arab regimes during recent rebellions in the Arab world. Robert G. Rabil examines the emergence and development of Salafism into a prominent religious movement in Lebanon, including the ideological and sociopolitical foundation that led to the three different schools of Salafism in Lebanon: quietist Salafists, Haraki (active) Salafists; and Salafi Jihadists. Emphasizing their manhaj (methodology) toward politics, the author surveys Salafists’ ideological transformation from opponents to supporters of political engagement. Their antagonism to Hezbollah, which they denounce as the party of Satan, has risen exponentially following the party’s seizure of Beirut in 2008 and support of the tyrannical Syrian regime. Salafism in Lebanon also demonstrates how activists and jihadi Salafists, in response to the political weakness of Sunni leadership, have threatened regional and international security by endorsing violence and jihad. Drawing on field research trips, personal interviews, and Arabic primary sources, the book explores the relationship between the ideologies of the various schools of Salafism and their praxis in relation to Lebanese politics. The book should interest students and scholars of Islamic movements, international affairs, politics and religion, and radical groups and terrorism.
A Persistent Threat
Author: Seth G. Jones
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833087185
Pages: 108
Year: 2014-06-04
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This report examines the status and evolution of al Qa’ida and other Salafi-jihadist groups, and uses qualitative and quantitative data to assess whether this movement has strengthened. The author uses this analysis to examine U.S. strategic options to counter al Qa’ida and other terrorist groups based on the threat level and the capacity of local governments.