Der Fall Paul Kammerer Das Abenteuerliche Leben Des Umstrittensten Biologen Seiner Zeit Book PDF, EPUB Download & Read Online Free

Der Fall Paul Kammerer
Author: Klaus Taschwer
Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG
ISBN: 3446449418
Pages: 352
Year: 2016-09-26
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1926 erklimmt Paul Kammerer einen Hügel im Schneebergmassiv. Dann setzt er sich einen Revolver an die Schläfe und seinem Leben ein Ende. Kurz zuvor ist Kammerer, den man als größten Biologen seit Darwin feierte, die Fälschung von Experimenten vorgeworfen worden. Der Fall erregt weltweit Aufsehen und ist bis heute ungeklärt. Klaus Taschwer rollt das Leben des "Krötenküssers" neu auf. Des Vaters der Epigenetik, der sich nicht nur in der Biologie, sondern auch als Komponist und Liebhaber von Alma Mahler einen Namen machte – und er liefert die erste heiße Spur im „Cold Case Kammerer“, die zu einer antisemitischen Verschwörung führt. Ein wahrer Krimi, der das kreative Milieu Wiens um 1900 zu neuem Leben erweckt.
Vivarium
Author: Gerd B. Müller
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262036703
Pages: 304
Year: 2017-09-29
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The Biologische Versuchsanstalt was founded in Vienna in 1902 with the explicit goal to foster the quantification, mathematization, and theory formation of the biological sciences. Three biologists from affluent Viennese Jewish families -- Hans Przibram, Wilhelm Figdor, and Leopold von Portheim--founded, financed, and nurtured the institute, overseeing its development into one of the most advanced biological research institutes of the time. And yet today its accomplishments are nearly forgotten. In 1938, the founders and other members were denied access to the institute by the Nazis and were forced into exile or deported to concentration camps. The building itself was destroyed by fire in April 1945. This book rescues the legacy of the "Vivarium" (as the Institute was often called), describing both its scientific achievements and its place in history. The book covers the Viennese sociocultural context at the time of the Vivarium's founding, and the scientific zeitgeist that shaped its investigations. It discusses the institute's departments and their research topics, and describes two examples that had scientific and international ramifications: the early work of Karl von Frisch, who in 1973 won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; and the connection to Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York. ContributorsHeiner Fangerau, Johannes Feichtinger, Georg Gaugusch, Manfred D. Laubichler, Cheryl A. Logan, Gerd B. Müller, Tania Munz, Kärin Nickelsen, Christian Reiß, Kate E. Sohasky, Heiko Stoff, Klaus Taschwer
Der Einbruch der Rassenhygiene in die Medizin
Author: Jürgen Peter
Publisher: Mabuse-Verlag
ISBN: 3863214781
Pages: 240
Year: 2018-02-05
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Der Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts ist durch die Ausprägung neuer, paradigmatischer Leitideologien der Medizin bestimmt. Ein häufiges Argument in der neueren Medizingeschichtsschreibung ist die These, dass die neue Leitideologie der Rassenhygiene spätestens seit der Machtübernahme der Nationalsozialisten Schritt für Schritt in nahezu alle medizinischen Disziplinen eindringen sollte, um diese nach Möglichkeit für sich nutzbar zu machen, ohne dass bislang der Versuch unternommen worden ist, dieser Frage disziplinvergleichend nachzugehen. In dieser Studie werden Einbruch und Durchsetzung der Rassenhygiene in wichtigen klinischen Disziplinen vom Ende des Ersten Weltkrieges bis zur Etablierung der NS-Herrschaft untersucht. In einem weiteren Abschnitt wird die Psychiatrie als politisches Instrument der Gegenrevolution 1918/1919 dargestellt. Auch hier kann gezeigt werden, welche Rezeptionskarriere der Rassenhygiene im Gewande der Entartungsdebatte, in der psychiatrischen Medikalisierung und Diffamierung politisch Andersdenkender und schließlich auf dem Gebiet der Forensischen Psychiatrie beschieden war.
Aufbruch und Zerstörung
Author: Wolfgang L. Reiter
Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
ISBN: 3643508255
Pages: 466
Year: 2017-08
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Mit dem vorliegenden Band legt der Autor eine Auswahl seiner Aufsatze der letzten drei Jahrzehnte zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften in Osterreich von 1850 bis 1950 vor. HErvorzuheben ist die Zeiten und Facher ubergreifende Perspektive, die es dem Autor erlaubt, die Wissenschaftsentwicklung aus dem Blickwinkel von Aufbruch und Zerstorung zu rekonstruieren. Die Zerstorung der Wissenschaftskultur durch die Machtubernahme der Nationalsozialisten 1938 und die Restrukturierung des wissenschaftlichen Lebens in Osterreich nach 1945 stehen im Fokus einer detailreichen Darstellung der Wissenschaften unter wechselnd politischen Bedingungen. "Wolfgang Reiter hat ... Ein einzigartiges und nachhaltig wirksames Bild von der osterreichischen Wissenschaftsgeschichte gezeichnet, das im vorliegenden Buch durch die Leserin und den Leser neu betrachtet werden kann." (Johannes Feichtinger, Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften)
The Art of Naming
Author: Michael Ohl
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262345927
Pages: 312
Year: 2018-03-23
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From Tyrannosaurus rex to Heteropoda davidbowie: scientific naming as a joyful and creative act. Tyrannosaurus rex. Homo sapiens. Heteropoda davidbowie. Behind each act of scientific naming is a story. In this entertaining and illuminating book, Michael Ohl considers scientific naming as a joyful and creative act. There are about 1.8 million discovered and named plant and animal species, and millions more still to be discovered. Naming is the necessary next step after discovery; it is through the naming of species that we perceive and understand nature. Ohl explains the process, with examples, anecdotes, and a wildly varied cast of characters. He describes the rules for scientific naming; the vernacular isn't adequate. These rules -- in standard binomial nomenclature, the generic name followed by specific name -- go back to Linnaeus; but they are open to idiosyncrasy and individual expression. A lizard is designated Barbaturex morrisoni (in honor of the Doors' Jim Morrison, the Lizard King); a member of the horsefly family Scaptia beyonceae. Ohl, a specialist in “winged things that sting,” confesses that among the many wasp species he has named is Ampulex dementor, after the dementors in the Harry Potter novels. Scientific names have also been deployed by scientists to insult other scientists, to make political statements, and as expressions of romantic love: “I shall name this beetle after my beloved wife.” The Art of Naming takes us on a surprising and fascinating journey, in the footsteps of the discoverers of species and the authors of names, into the nooks and crannies and drawers and cabinets of museums, and through the natural world of named and not-yet-named species.
Gesundheit ist kein Zufall
Author: Peter Spork
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 3641198194
Pages: 416
Year: 2017-03-13
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Warum unsere Gesundheit bei den Großeltern beginnt und bei den Enkeln nicht endet Noch weitgehend unbemerkt von der Öffentlichkeit ändert sich derzeit das Verständnis der Fachwelt von dem, was Gesundheit ist und wie die sogenannten Volkskrankheiten entstehen. Bahnbrechende neue Erkenntnisse der modernen Biologie zeigen: Gesundheit ist kein Zustand. Gesundheit ist auch nicht das Gegenteil von Krankheit. Wir werden nicht gesund oder krank geboren. Gesundheit ist ein andauernder Prozess. Die Zellen des Körpers arbeiten unentwegt gegen Alterung und Krankheit. Sie erinnern sich dabei an Umwelteinflüsse und die Folgen des eigenen Lebensstils. Sogar die Erfahrungen der Eltern und Großeltern, deren Ernährungsgewohnheiten oder seelischen Belastungen sind molekularbiologisch gespeichert. Besonders wichtig sind zudem die Erlebnisse aus der Zeit vor und nach der Geburt. Gesundheit ist ein generationenübergreifendes Projekt. Der Wissenschaftsautor Peter Spork schildert anschaulich und spannend, wie die Weitergabe von Gesundheit und Persönlichkeit funktioniert und wie wir die zugrunde liegenden Prozesse steuern können. Er macht auch klar, wie wir als Eltern und Großeltern unseren Kindern und Enkeln den Weg in ein langes, gesundes und glückliches Leben bereiten können.
The Case of the Midwife Toad
Author: Arthur Koestler
Publisher:
ISBN: 1939438454
Pages: 188
Year: 2016-01-08
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On September 23, 1926, and Austrian experimental biologist named Dr. Paul Kammerer blew his brains out on a footpath in the Austrian mountains. His suicide was the climax of a great evolutionary controversy which his experiments had aroused. The battle was between the followers of Lamarck, who maintained that acquired characteristics could be inherited, and the neo-Darwinists, who upheld the theory of chance mutations preserved by natural selection. Dr. Kammerer's experiments with various amphibians, including salamanders and the midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans), lent much weight to the Lamarckian argument and drew upon him the full fury of the orthodox neo-Darwinists. Arthur Koestler had known about Dr. Kammerer's work when he himself was a student in Vienna, and he has always been interested in this tragic story. He gives a fascinating description of the venomous atmosphere in which the battle was fought and of the lengths to which apparently respectable scholars would go to discredit their opponents. Heading the attack on Kammerer was a British scientist, William Bateson, who hinted that the Viennese's experiments were fakes, but who failed to examine the evidence, including the so-called nuptial pads of Kammerer's last remaining specimen of the midwife toad. It was a young American scientist who delivered the coup de grace; on a visit to Vienna, he discovered that the discoloration of the nuptial pads was due not to natural causes but to the injection Indian ink. When his findings were published, Kammerer shot himself. Mr. Koestler, whose recent writings, in books such as The Act of Creation and The Ghost in the Machine, have been in part concerned with evolutionary theory, decided to investigate this old mystery. When he started on his researches, he expected to relate the tragedy of a man who had betrayed his calling, for Kammerer's suicide was accepted as a confession of guilt and his work was discredited from that day to this. Instead, as Mr. Koestler read the contemporary papers, corresponded with Kammerer's daughter, Bateson's son, and the surviving scientists who attended Kammerer's lecture in Cambridge, he found himself writing a vindication of a man who in all probability was himself betrayed. The story that emerges is, on one level, fascinating piece of scientific detection; on another, it is a moving and human narrative about a much abused, brilliant and lovable figure. Though no Lamarckian himself, Mr. Koestler ends the book with an appeal to biologists to repeat Kammerer's experiments with an open mind in order to verify or refute them. If Kammerer's claims were posthumously confirmed our outlook on evolution would be significantly changed. A superb intellectual thriller whose implications still reverberate today, The Case of the Midwife Toad is an entirely new kind of book for Mr. Koestler, and perhaps only he could have written it, for it required expert knowledge and familiarity with the academic world of science, combined with the creativity and imaginative insight of an outstanding novelist.
Earth's Deep History
Author: Martin J. S. Rudwick
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022620409X
Pages: 392
Year: 2014-10-15
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Earth has been witness to mammoths and dinosaurs, global ice ages, continents colliding or splitting apart, and comets and asteroids crashing catastrophically to the surface, as well as the birth of humans who are curious to understand it. But how was all this discovered? How was the evidence for it collected and interpreted? And what kinds of people have sought to reconstruct this past that no human witnessed or recorded? In this sweeping and accessible book, Martin J. S. Rudwick, the premier historian of the Earth sciences, tells the gripping human story of the gradual realization that the Earth’s history has not only been unimaginably long but also astonishingly eventful. Rudwick begins in the seventeenth century with Archbishop James Ussher, who famously dated the creation of the cosmos to 4004 BC. His narrative later turns to the crucial period of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, when inquisitive intellectuals, who came to call themselves “geologists,” began to interpret rocks and fossils, mountains and volcanoes, as natural archives of Earth’s history. He then shows how this geological evidence was used—and is still being used—to reconstruct a history of the Earth that is as varied and unpredictable as human history itself. Along the way, Rudwick rejects the popular view of this story as a conflict between science and religion and shows how the modern scientific account of the Earth’s deep history retains strong roots in Judaeo-Christian ideas. Extensively illustrated, Earth’s Deep History is an engaging and impressive capstone to Rudwick’s distinguished career. Though the story of the Earth is inconceivable in length, Rudwick moves with grace from the earliest imaginings of our planet’s deep past to today’s scientific discoveries, proving that this is a tale at once timeless and timely.
Show Me the Bone
Author: Gowan Dawson
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022633287X
Pages: 480
Year: 2016-04-21
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Nineteenth-century paleontologists boasted that, shown a single bone, they could identify or even reconstruct the extinct creature it came from with infallible certainty—“Show me the bone, and I will describe the animal!” Paleontologists such as Georges Cuvier and Richard Owen were heralded as scientific virtuosos, sometimes even veritable wizards, capable of resurrecting the denizens of an ancient past from a mere glance at a fragmentary bone. Such extraordinary feats of predictive reasoning relied on the law of correlation, which proposed that each element of an animal corresponds mutually with each of the others, so that a carnivorous tooth must be accompanied by a certain kind of jawbone, neck, stomach, limbs, and feet. Show Me the Bone tells the story of the rise and fall of this famous claim, tracing its fortunes from Europe to America and showing how it persisted in popular science and literature and shaped the practices of paleontologists long after the method on which it was based had been refuted. In so doing, Gowan Dawson reveals how decisively the practices of the scientific elite were—and still are—shaped by their interactions with the general public.
The Years of Bloom
Author: John McCourt
Publisher: Univ of Wisconsin Press
ISBN: 0299169804
Pages: 306
Year: 2000
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Since the publication of Richard Ellmann's James Joyce in 1959, Joyce has received remarkably little biographical attention. Scholars have chipped away at various aspects of Ellmann's impressive edifice but have failed to construct anything that might stand alongside it. The Years of Bloom is arguably the most important work of Joyce biography since Ellmann. Based on extensive scrutiny of previously unused Italian sources and informed by the author's intimate knowledge of the culture and dialect of Trieste, The Years of Bloom documents a fertile period in Joyce's life. While living in Trieste, Joyce wrote most of the stories in Dubliners, turned Stephen Hero into A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, and began Ulysses. Echoes and influences of Trieste are rife throughout Ulysses and Finnegans Wake. Though Trieste had become a sleepy backwater by the time Ellmann visited there in the 1950s, McCourt shows that the city was a teeming imperial port, intensely cosmopolitan and polyglot, during the approximately twelve years Joyce lived there in the waning years of the Habsburg Empire. It was there that Joyce experienced the various cultures of central Europe and the eastern Mediterranean. He met many Jews, who collectively provided much of the material for the character of Leopold Bloom. He encountered continental socialism, Italian Irredentism, Futurism, and various other political and artistic forces whose subtle influences McCourt traces with literary grace and scholarly rigour. The Years of Bloom, a rare landmark in the crowded terrain of Joyce studies, will instantly take its place as a standard work.
The Dancing Bees
Author: Tania Munz
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022602105X
Pages: 304
Year: 2016-05-10
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We think of bees as being among the busiest workers in the garden, admiring them for their productivity. But amid their buzzing, they are also great communicators—and unusual dancers. As Karl von Frisch (1886–1982) discovered during World War II, bees communicate the location of food sources to each other through complex circle and waggle dances. For centuries, beekeepers had observed these curious movements in hives, and others had speculated about the possibility of a bee language used to manage the work of the hive. But it took von Frisch to determine that the bees’ dances communicated precise information about the distance and direction of food sources. As Tania Munz shows in this exploration of von Frisch’s life and research, this important discovery came amid the tense circumstances of the Third Reich. The Dancing Bees draws on previously unexplored archival sources in order to reveal von Frisch’s full story, including how the Nazi government in 1940 determined that he was one-quarter Jewish, revoked his teaching privileges, and sought to prevent him from working altogether until circumstances intervened. In the 1940s, bee populations throughout Europe were facing the devastating effects of a plague (just as they are today), and because the bees were essential to the pollination of crops, von Frisch’s research was deemed critical to maintaining the food supply of a nation at war. The bees, as von Frisch put it years later, saved his life. Munz not only explores von Frisch’s complicated career in the Third Reich, she looks closely at the legacy of his work and the later debates about the significance of the bee language and the science of animal communication. This first in-depth biography of von Frisch paints a complex and nuanced portrait of a scientist at work under Nazi rule. The Dancing Bees will be welcomed by anyone seeking to better understand not only this chapter of the history of science but also the peculiar waggles of our garden visitors.
Ending the Mendel-Fisher Controversy
Author: Allan Franklin, A. W. F. Edwards, Daniel J. Fairbanks, Daniel L. Hartl
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre
ISBN: 0822973405
Pages: 330
Year:
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In 1865, Gregor Mendel presented "Experiments in Plant-Hybridization," the results of his eight-year study of the principles of inheritance through experimentation with pea plants. Overlooked in its day, Mendel's work would later become the foundation of modern genetics. Did his pioneering research follow the rigors of real scientific inquiry, or was Mendel's data too good to be true-the product of doctored statistics? In Ending the Mendel-Fisher Controversy, leading experts present their conclusions on the legendary controversy surrounding the challenge to Mendel's findings by British statistician and biologist R. A. Fisher. In his 1936 paper "Has Mendel's Work Been Rediscovered?" Fisher suggested that Mendel's data could have been falsified in order to support his expectations. Fisher attributed the falsification to an unknown assistant of Mendel's. At the time, Fisher's criticism did not receive wide attention. Yet beginning in 1964, about the time of the centenary of Mendel's paper, scholars began to publicly discuss whether Fisher had successfully proven that Mendel's data was falsified. Since that time, numerous articles, letters, and comments have been published on the controversy. This self-contained volume includes everything the reader will need to know about the subject: an overview of the controversy; the original papers of Mendel and Fisher; four of the most important papers on the debate; and new updates, by the authors, of the latter four papers. Taken together, the authors contend, these voices argue for an end to the controversy-making this book the definitive last word on the subject.
Ashantee
Author: Peter Altenberg
Publisher: Ariadne Press (CA)
ISBN: 1572411554
Pages: 128
Year: 2007
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This collection of thirty-eight impressionist episodes describes a white man's friendship with a group of Ashanti tribespeople from the Gold Coast of Africa (the former British colony known today as Ghana), who in 1896 were put on display as living objects in a popular ethnographic exhibit in the Vienna Zoological Garden, then still located in Vienna's famous amusement park called Prater. The exhibit caused a veritable "Ashanti fever" as the show attracted five to six thousand visitors per day. Altenberg, barely disguised as Ashantee's autobiographical character Sir Peter, shows a genuine curiosity about the cultural Other and paints a critical picture of his Austrian contemporaries prejudices, revealed as they were experienced by the Africans. In "Ashantee", beautiful, sensual, childlike, and wholesome African "paradise people" provide inspiration for the tormented civilised soul of the fin-de-siècle European. Eccentric coffeehouse writer Altenberg is famous for his unique telegram style. Critic Karl Kraus claimed, "One sentence by Peter Altenberg is equal to an entire Viennese novel". "Ashantee" introduces the reader to a little-known facet of vibrant Vienna around 1900. Combining cross-cultural sympathy with colonial stereotyping, the book has gained new popularity as current debates about the challenges of cultural coexistence in the global society have renewed interest in the literature about encounters between people of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. In this edition, Peter Altenberg's literary text is illustrated with reprints of original drawings and photographs of Altenberg and the Ashanti in Vienna.
The Vertigo Years
Author: Philipp Blom
Publisher: Basic Books (AZ)
ISBN: 0465020291
Pages: 488
Year: 2010-11-02
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Examines how changes from the Industrial Revolution prior to World War I brought about radical transformation in society, changes in education, and massive migration in population that led to one of the bloodiest events in history.
Splithead
Author: Julya Rabinowich
Publisher: Granta Books
ISBN: 1846273404
Pages: 208
Year: 2011-02-03
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‘My father and I head towards a nervous breakdown as he attempts to erase three years of Communist indoctrination in the course of a single evening. I simply cannot comprehend that Lenin, the friend of all children, is now allegedly an arsehole.’ When seven-year-old Mischka and her family flee the oppressive USSR for the freedom of Vienna, her world seems to divide neatly in two: there’s life as she knew it before, and life as she must relearn it now. But even as she’s busy dressing her new Barbie, perfecting her German and gorging on fresh fruit, Mischka is aware that there’s part of her that can never escape her homeland, with its terrifying folktales, its insidious anti-Semitism and its old family secrets. As her parents’ marriage splinters and her sister retreats into silence, Mischka has to find her own way of living when her head and her heart are in two places at once. There is darkness galore in this novel. But there is also much comedy to be had in its twisted enchanted tales. It is as seductive and unsettling as similar work by Angela Carter or Margaret Atwood, while it shares a geography with Everything Is Illuminated and If I Told You Once.